# Ugur Ersoy Betonarme.pdf: A Comprehensive Guide to Reinforced Concrete Design

Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used materials in civil engineering. It combines the strength of concrete with the ductility of steel, making it suitable for various structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, tunnels and more. However, designing reinforced concrete structures requires a thorough understanding of the material properties, structural behavior, code provisions and design methods.

Ugur Ersoy Betonarme.pdf is a popular textbook that covers all the aspects of reinforced concrete design in a clear and comprehensive manner. The book is written by Professor Ugur Ersoy, a renowned expert in the field of structural engineering and former dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering at Middle East Technical University in Turkey. The book is based on the Turkish code for reinforced concrete design (TS 500), but it also includes references to other international codes such as Eurocode 2, ACI 318 and BS 8110.

The book consists of two volumes: Betonarme 1 and Betonarme 2. The first volume covers the basic concepts and principles of reinforced concrete design, such as material properties, stress-strain relationships, flexural analysis and design, shear and torsion, bond and anchorage, serviceability and durability. The second volume covers more advanced topics such as slender columns, continuous beams, frames, plates, shells, foundations, retaining walls and seismic design.

Ugur Ersoy Betonarme.pdf is a valuable resource for students, instructors and practitioners who want to learn or improve their skills in reinforced concrete design. The book provides numerous examples, figures, tables and diagrams to illustrate the theory and practice of reinforced concrete design. The book also includes appendices that contain useful information such as design aids, material properties, code provisions and conversion factors.

Ugur Ersoy Betonarme.pdf is available online in PDF format from various sources such as Scribd[^1^] [^2^] [^3^]. The book is written in Turkish, but it can be easily translated using online tools such as Google Translate or Bing Translator. The book is also available in print from various bookstores and online retailers.

In this article, we will review some of the main topics covered in Ugur Ersoy Betonarme.pdf and provide some examples of reinforced concrete design problems and solutions. We will focus on the second volume of the book, Betonarme 2, which deals with more advanced topics in reinforced concrete design.

## Slender Columns

Slender columns are columns that have a large slenderness ratio, which is the ratio of the effective length to the least lateral dimension of the column. Slender columns are susceptible to buckling under axial load, which reduces their strength and stiffness. Therefore, slender columns require special design considerations to account for the effects of slenderness.

Ugur Ersoy Betonarme.pdf provides a detailed explanation of the theory and methods for designing slender columns according to the Turkish code (TS 500) and other international codes such as Eurocode 2 and ACI 318. The book also provides several examples of slender column design problems and solutions, such as the following:

The figure above shows a slender column that supports an axial load of 1500 kN and a moment of 300 kN.m at its top. The column has a square cross-section of 400 mm x 400 mm and is made of C25 concrete and S420 steel. The column is braced at its base and at a height of 3 m from the base. The effective length factor is 1.0 for both axes. The design problem is to determine the required reinforcement area for the column.

The solution is as follows:

- Calculate the slenderness ratio for both axes:

Î»x = Î»y = le / h = (1.0 x 6 m) / 0.4 m = 15 > 12

Therefore, the column is slender for both axes. - Calculate the nominal axial load capacity:

Pn = 0.85 fck Ac + fyk As

where fck is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete, Ac is the gross cross-sectional area of concrete, fyk is the characteristic yield strength of steel, and As is the cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement.

Assume As = 0.01 Ac as a trial value. Then:

Pn = 0.85 x 25 x (0.4 x 0.4) + 420 x 0.01 x (0.4 x 0.4)

Pn = 1360 kN - Calculate the magnification factor:

Î² = [1 + â(1 – (Pu / Pn)^2)] / 2

where Pu is the factored axial load and Pn is the nominal axial load capacity.

Pu = 1.35 x 1500 = 2025 kN

Î² = [1 + â(1 – (2025 / 1360)^2)] / 2

Î² = 1.38 - Calculate the factored moment:

Mu = Î² Muy + Mux

where Muy is the unbraced moment at mid-height and Mux is the factored moment at the top.

Muy = Pu (le / 2) / Ï^2 = 2025 x (6 / 2) / Ï^2 = 195 kN.m

Mux = 1.5 x 300 = 450 kN.m

Mu = 1.38 x 195 + 450 = 719 kN.m - Calculate the required reinforcement ratio:

Ï = Mu / (fyk d^2)

where d is the effective depth of the column section.

Assume d = h – c – Ï/2 = 0.4 – 0.04 – 0.016/2 = 0.35 m

where c is the concrete cover and Ï is the bar diameter.

Ï = 719 x 10^6 / (420 x (0.35)^2)

Ï = 0.039 - Calculate the required reinforcement area:

As = Ï Ac

As =